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  What if the United States was authoritarian: not 75% like Mussolini's Italy or 95% like Nazi Germany, but just 50%? Fascism merged government and corporations so consider a question asked by our corporate media, "Why do they hate us?" not "Why do they want revenge?" Isn't it more likely that "they" hate corporatism more than "We the People"? Bin Laden said that he was avenging atrocities in Palestine and Iraq. Maybe he wasn't, but who will 1.4 billion in 50 Muslim countries believe? Shouldn't We recognize how internal enemies frame definitions to confuse us? One summary of the current lies is at But let's go further back. Do we seek a brutish British imperial heritage? Do we need 800 overseas bases? Have we imitated their immorality of bombing innocent civilians? Do we condone the murder of civilians (what better litmus test of fascism)? Did we change capitalism into domination by fictional corporate persons?  In fact, didn't the founders of 1776 fear British corporate charters and aim America towards liberty, equality, and humanity?

  Isn't aristocratic pursuit of property our historic enemy? American values trace to Roman republics through French and Slavic roots. The htm (upper left) describes how aristocracy infiltrated back after 1793 and largely returned with national corporations in 1866. After the Supreme Court "legislated" citizen rights to corporations (1886). they began enforcing wage slavery (1891) to piratetize government and undermine the justice promised in the written constitution. In World War 2, corporatism subverted two of "Four Freedoms" promised in the Atlantic Charter. As quoted in the NY Times, on 24 June 1941, Senator Truman had said: 

      He qualified this with "...although I don't want to see Hitler victorious under any circumstances. Neither of them thinks anything of their pledged word"; but since when do we expect national leaders to keep their word?In fact, Russia was winning by late 1942 and steps were taken to keep Germany in the war. This unofficially started with an "unconditional surrender" policy that was inexplicably announced in January 1943, right after six Axis armies were destroyed near Stalingrad. When Italy, Hungary, and Romania wanted to stop fighting in early 1943, America refused to negotiate. Eisenhower prematurely announced Italian surrender (Sept. 1943). Hitler secured the Balkans and captured 80 Italian Army divisions, part of the Air Force, plus equipment. This largely unreported blunder did allow Hitler to "kill as many as possible" Jewish and Slavic people, but Stalin was barely slowed. He grabbed nine Central European countries by the summer of 1944, Communist occupation followed. Was it only a blunder, or part of a misdirected military-industrial plan?   

   Truman's 1955 memoir said "...the opportunities afforded by the Vice-Presidency, particularly the Presidency of the Senate, do not come – they are there to be seized."  (Ask Cheney.) After he became a backroom choice for president (1944), Truman and his cronies began helping Germany. Card-carrying Nazis were soon reinstated. Even outright collaboration in 1945 is in the public record (as with Operations Dick Tracy & Unthinkable). Then there's Truman's mass-killing at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, contrary to advice from generals and admirals. Starting with a National Security Act in 1947, he emplaced a corpfederacy (aka military-industrial complex), including an unconstitutional Air Force and CIA. Then came undeclared war in Korea (1950). A few dozen corporations soon seized American wealth with a fewl hundred families dominating the world, many with royal titles. Political scientists call it a polyarchy, part of which is an "oily-archy."  
Consider the banner presented to Pulaski by the Moravian community in Bethlehem PA. It conveys an essential message to help us recall what real patriots died for.                                                                                                                        No foreign rulers. 

The truth can help make you free. Isn't it time for "We the People" to again rise from the grassroots and coalition against similar enemies?         
             United Virtue is Stronger.

   (What else do you need to know? Citizens - stop whining - form your battalions!)
                                  Aristocracy is an historic enemy of democracy
    Common Sense disproved America's English heritage. In fact, Poland was a top ancestral homeland of American values and many of its immigrants. Its major power status began with a decisive battle at Grunwald (aka Tannenburg)2 in 1410 as commemorated in the following two paintings (one on right shows Duke Witold flanked by Jan Zizka & Zawisza Czarny). It was a bigger battle than Crécy, Agincourt, Poitiers, Hastings - and broke the back of the Teutonic knights and Europe's Templar aristocracy. Some of their progeny haven't forgiven the defeat. The Prussian (Hohenzollern) homage at the Krakow marketplace in 1525 (at lower left) is another event that the Templars and some of their Hanoverian cousins want erased from history. 

   A Polish realm later protected the West from Russian and Turkish invasion. Early Muscovite expansion was repulsed at Orsha in 1514, where about 60,000 Russians were badly defeated. The Polish-Lithuanian coalition emerged from such victories as a strong empire. Since decisive cavalry attacks played a major role in these battles, an establishment of winged hussars became an elite division in the Coalition's standing army. King Stefan Batory mobilized his disparate units around this powerful force and it repeatedly defeated the Russians (1579-81 to 1772). The painting in the right shows him receiving homage from them. At Klushino (1610, near Borodino) a Polish cavalry corps of about 7,000 defeated Russian army of 36,000 (including 6,000 western mercenaries) led by the Czar's brother. The Smolensk fortress surrendered and the Russian aristocrats ousted the Czar to allow the Polish army into Moscow. A Polish Prince sat in the Kremlin for several years.  

    Such successes were motivated by a relatively democratic structure of the large realm. For example, a lower left painting commemorates an election (1573) wherein candidates for the Polish throne were interviewed as to their respect for freedom and Parliamentary (Sejm) rule.3 Religious liberty and a long-practice of toleration were codified in the 1573 Constitution. In the years that England and Spain claimed and maimed in North America, the Jagellonian Realm stretched from the Baltic to Black Sea with double the combined population of England and Spain. English aristocracy hated democracy and tried to ban its works, like Goslicki's De Optimo Senatore. This classic political and social treatise on the "Ideal Senator" was originally written in Latin (1568, for publication in Venice), was republished in Basel (1593) and began to appear in England as The Counselor (1598). A 1607 edition was found in the colonies as a repository of democratic ideas, including "all men are created equal." 

   The Polish alliance with France and the Spanish court contributed to international political significance for such ideas. Its military successes were also noticed when a Swedish army was beaten at Kircholm (1605, near Riga, shown in the painting at the center). Meanwhile, Poland's unquestioned reputation on the Continent was as a bulwark of Christianity against Islam and Russian Orthodoxy, The motto "God, Honor, Country" still survives. In Renaissance Europe, Poland had become an extensive refuge for Protestant sects and welcomed the largest Jewish community in the world (Hebrew for sanctuary was "Polin"). A Cossack rebellion (1648), under Chmielnicki, ended this trend because aristocrats on both sides blamed the Jews, so it led to a genocidal war. The Battle of Beresteczko, one of the largest of the 17th Century, defeated 120,000 Ukrainians, Crimeans, and Tartars but Chmielnicki joined the Muscovite Czar and by treaty (Pereyaslavl, 1654) incorporated Ukraine into a Russian empire. This led to Poland's war with Russia, which lasted to 1656; with Swedish armies adding to a "deluge" from the north that was driven back in 1657. The Turks invaded from the South and the Poles rallied under John Sobieski, who defeated the Turks at Chocim (1672.) After failing to break Europe from the southeast, a massive Turkish army (130,000) then invaded Austria. 

    The Turks besieged Vienna with forces from the south. Sobieski then led a Christian relief army (70,000 German, French, and Polish troops) and launched a decisive offensive to save Viennain 1683 (right painting). Sobieski's forces swept down the hills led by four cavalry groups in a charge not exceeded until the Napoleonic era.4c This panicked the Turks, who were still attacking into Vienna. Their subsequent rout was considered a turning point in the 300-year struggle between Europe and the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, the losses and financial cost of the previous decades took their toll on the Polish treasury and military capability. Both Prussia and Russia exploited the weakness with help of Austria, Sweden, and Saxony. Despite French aid, political intrigue and bribery finally led to Poland's partition (1772). It was later erased from the European map for over a hundred years (1815-1918).

   (Its immigrants were credited to Germany or Austria where religious and language impositions forced many ethnic Poles to leave. Even if Poles left Russian areas they usually "arrived from" Germanic ports. If we assume that its occupied lands produced immigrants to the U.S. at half the rate of similarly oppressed Ireland, then it is a top ancestral home. The following text may reverse some folk tales and about this American heritage but, despite historical truth, the greater concern is that the United States, Canada, and Mexico, are making mistakes similar to those that destroyed Polish independence. It was originally also based on a written Constitution and religious freedom but was undermined by the robber-barons of the time.) 

  From our beginning, Polish veterans and technical specialists had a decisive impact in the War for Independence. Pulaski’s proven cavalry skills in reconnaissance saved Washington’s army from encirclement at Brandywine (Sept. 1777), where he led a small mounted unit against a flank attack (like one at Brooklyn Heights in 1776). That's why Washington promptly made him a general of a new cavalry branch. Fighting foreign encroachment in his native Poland taught him what liberty was. He was killed leading a charge at Savannah in 1779 (11 Oct.) and Henry W. Longfellow wrote a poem (above) to commemorate presentation of his unit banner at the Sun Inn, in Bethlehem (PA) by “sisters” who were part of a Moravian women’s community. When asked why Poles were fighting in America, Pulaski replied: Wherever men can fight for liberty that is also our fight and place. 

     He had denounced kings and aristocracy (see the La Marseillaisefor a depiction of these national sentiments) but American appeals for Lafayette's release would be ignored. By fighting Russia to defend Poland (1792), Kosciuszko had diverted the Prussians, as mentioned above. This is a key reason that a French conscript army was able to defend Paris. It bought time to mobilize a French Republic. The French Assembly made Kosciuszko an honorary French citizen (26 August 1792). Similar honors were extended to George Washington, Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and 7 other foreign heroes. Did we support Poland or France? No. American Federalists convinced Washington to declare neutrality in 1793, thus betraying the 1777 alliance.

   This betrayal of France, a decisive ally in the War for American Independence, prompted Jefferson to resign from the cabinet. Meanwhile, Kosciuszko returned to Poland (1794). After a Polish Declaration of Liberty, Integrity, and Independence in an Act of Insurrection at Krakow (24 March), took command of the nation. This historic document reflected his American experience and included Thomas Jefferson's ideas. A sympathizer of British values, Gouverneur Morris, misrepresented the United States to France during this critical period and his failures soon provoked armed conflict, to the detriment of Poland.

    The first part Poland's Declaration denounced the Prussian and Russian invasion (Austria did not invade in 1791) and domestic enemies. The second part enumerated the goals of the insurrection, including independence and restoration of national liberty, with an indirect plea to France and America. The third part outlined a Constitution similar to that of the United States with an offer of freedom to any serfs who joined the Army. The spirit of the document was more desperate than that of America because the enemies were closer and much stronger; it was about dying on your feet rather than knees. Both of the newly forming American political parties applauded Poland and acclaimed its "George Washington" and the document roused immediate Polish support. Both Warsaw and Wilno promptly ejected its occupiers and Kosciuszko then led a brilliant 200-day insurrection with a major victory against the Russians at Raclawice (4 April) against Russians and against Prussians near Szczekociny (6 June). 

    He then aided a besieged Warsaw (July-Sept.). He suffered a defeat near Maciejowice (10 October) and was seriously wonnded. The Russians captured Kosciuszko but Warsaw held out a few weeks longer. Its subsequent brutalization is still remembered because the Russians butchered the entire Praha suburb. After two years (& death of Empress Catherine) Kosciuszko was released by Czar Paul on an oath to remain inactive in the current conflict. Via Finland and Sweden, he arrived in Great Britain from where he left for the United States and stayed for a year to recuperate and renew old friendships.  

   Poland’s widespread affirmation of republican values motivated the black eagles of Russia, Prussia, and Austria – unable to beat Napoleon – to tear apart the White Eagle. Consequently, units from the insurrection promptly joined Napoleon in creating republics in north Italy. Poland was wiped off the European map but the National Anthem (Poland is Not Yet Lost)6 originated from exile legions under General John Dombrowski. There was more moral support for Poland than for the French Revolution.

    Thomas Jefferson honored Kosciuszko in his memoirs. Mutual trust and a shared spirit of liberty is clear from a request to Jefferson (April 1798) as to the disposition of his back pay (pay & benefits for service) in our War for Independence:
            I beg Mr. Jefferson that in case I should die without will or testament he should buy out of  my money so many Negroes
           and free them, that the restant Sum should be Sufficient to give them education and provide for their maintenance.
           That is to say each should know before, the duty of a Cytyzen in the free Government, that he must defend his Country
           against foreign as well as internal Enemis who would wish to change the Constitution for the vorst to inslave them by 
          degree afterwards, to have good and human heart sensible for the sufferings of others, each must be married and have
          100 ackres of land, wyth instruments, Cattle for tillage and know how to manage and Gouvern it as well to know how 
           behave to neybourghs, always wyth kindness and ready to help them - to themselves frugal, to their Children give good
           education I mean as to the heart and the duty to their Country, in gratitude to me to make themselves happy as possible.

    This was grammatically rewritten and confirmed by Jefferson’s affiliate John Dawson (June 1798). Because it was too controversial for the growing slavery lobby in the South, it was not honored as written. The money was eventually endowed to a Negro school in Newark (NJ) for a similar purpose. After a year’s stay in the United States (18 Aug. 1797 to 27 May 1798), he returned to Paris and continued strong and constant communication with Jefferson. The sentiment against aristocracy is clear from his writings and he even turned against Napoleon when a trend for empire became obvious. He particularly encouraged creation of a federal school system that emphasized science. Such thoughts translated into a United States Military Academy. 

     Kosciuszko remained concerned about America's defense and contributed a manual on Manoeuvers of Horse Artillery in 1800. Col. Jonathan Williams (originally head of a Corps of Artillerists & Engineers) Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy (Dec. 1801) and commander of the Corps of Engineers (March 1802), had it translated. After Williams founded the U.S. Military Philosophical Society, with the motto "Science in War is the Guarantee of Peace," his translation gained Kosciuszko a title as "Father of American Horse Artillery" because his manual was used for several decades as a basic field manual. Its value was in integrating proven combat lessons from European battlefields into an American curriculum. It helped win the War of 1812 and was even adapted up to the Civil War because mobile artillery had been a key to Napoleonic success.

    In Paris, Kosciuszko did a political brochure entitled “Can the Poles Win Independence?” His thoughts about the possibility of independence proposed national forces, but not in French uniform. He was especially unhappy that Napoleon had used Polish units against the slave revolt in Haiti. Although he did not fight, Kosciuszko did maintain positive feelings for France and helped represent both the American and Polish visitors there. Meanwhile, back in Poland, Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski became the national leader of a Liberation Army and with Napoleon’s help partly restored Poland with a new constitution on 22 July 1807.

   In late 1808 a charge by Polish cavalry against artillery at Samosierra Pass8 (30 Nov.1808) played a decisive role in taking Madrid at the start of Napoleon's 2nd Peninsular War. In the War of the Fifth Coalition, Polish troops of the new Duchy of Warsaw inflicted another decisive defeat on the armies of the Austrian Empire at a Battle of Raszyn (19 April 1809). Prince Poniatowski's units withstood attacks on Warsaw and after a victory at Radzymin they reconquered parts of old Poland including Kraków and Lwów to regain dominion over millions of former citizens. After added victories near Grochów and Góra, Austria surrendered and its emperor agreed to disarm. As before, the royal house would break the promise a few years later.

    As French victories broke the Spanish and Portuguese hold in their American colonies (1809-10), there were revolutions against royalist control. This included slave rebellions in Brazil and Mexico. Two priests led a “holy revolution” in Mexico with demands to be known as "Americans" and not Indians, mulattoes, or other racist designations (Nov.1810). Venezuela and Paraguay became independent in the summer of 1811. To exploit such sentiments against America, the British promoted slave rebellions in Puerto Rico and Louisiana and also began arming the Indians on the western border in the Ohio valley.        

    America reacted by making Louisiana a state (April 1812) and war on Britain. Our history books fail to record that Napoleon called his invasion of Russia (23 June 1812) the "Second Polish War." It followed days after an American declaration of war on Britain. Joel Barlow (U.S. Army chaplain for three years in the War for Independence, founder of American Mercury, author of the epic "Columbiad") negotiated this informal alliance as US plenipotentiary to France (since 1811). At this critical juncture of history (14 July), the Polish Diet again declared their country independent. Was this Second War for American Independence also intended to coincide with Polish Reunification? The idea of a Polish Declaration of Independence had been evident in 1794, so it was not a coincidence that 14 July was the anniversary of Bastille Day, equivalent to America's 4th of July. 

    British provocations against America began weeks after the Louisiana Purchase, as they again went to war with Napoleon. Their Acts of Council against American commerce and support of Indian uprisings provoked the American defensive war in 1812. Despite royalist counterattacks in South America and the American declaration of war, Britain's main effort shifted to offensives in Spain. Wellington won a major victory that motivated new coalitions to march against France. Eventually, the death of Polish Prince Poniatowski (Leipzig, 1814) opened a Russian and Prussian path to Paris and, despite a series of brilliant maneuvers, Napoleon conceded defeat. If Joel Barlow, who had accepted honorary French citizenship (like Paine), had not died in Poland during Napoleon’s retreat, subsequent American relations to Europe might have been much different. 

    As it was, the hated hereditary ruler, Louis XVIII, returned to France (June 1814). His attempted reversal of democratic gains set the stage for Napoleon's return in 1815, which again distracted England. Having been delayed by such European events, British offensives in America came to a decisive end in Louisiana at the one-hour battle of New Orleans (8 Jan. 1815). This strategic defeat motivated their signature on the previously negotiated Ghent Peace Treaty and their later acceptance of a Monroe Doctrine. Such are the facts. So why is it still a political secret that France and Poland were cobelligerents during our War of 1812? How many British divisions could have gone to America if Napoleon’s Polish ally did not keep fighting to 1814?

    Anyway, by 1815 American amnesia was again evident and the Treaty of Vienna dismembered Poland with only the Krakow Republic left standing. It depressed Kosciuszko and he died within two years. America did not help this distant ally regain freedom until President Wilson's initiative, more than a hundred years later (1919). The two Polish heroes were not entirely forgotten and eventually there were numerous locations named for both of them as shown here:

    Courageous Polish revolutions were repeated9 In November 1830 there were battles at Stoczek, Olszynka, Grochowska, Waver, and Dab Wielki. After another bid for Polish Independence in 1846, Austria annexed Krakow. This violation of the Treaty of Vienna took place despite protests of Britain. France, Sweden, and Turkey. America was silent because the policy of southern slavery that had infected American politics also supported the kind of serfdom that was reimposed on Poland. When the Poles again rose in rebellion in 1848 during the "Springtime of Nations" many of them escaped here as "Germans" to flee European aristocracy. There was another major liberation movement in 1863 to 1864.10 

    Escalating Prussian oppression in 1908 inspired an "oath" of resistance.11 but in 1918, with the fall of four of the five slave empires, Poland regained its Independence. It promptly rallied its people to defeat a Bolshevik invasion towards Warsaw in a "miracle on the Vistula"12 making Poland free again,13 These are topics for longer discussion and the history of Poland in the Twentieth Century is covered by numerous documentaries. The betrayal in the summer of 1944 is examined in a BBC documentary, World War Two: Behind Closed Doors. This "betrayal" refers to British and American foreign policy in regards to Stalin at Teheran (1943), Yalta (1944), and Potsdam (1945), which allowed him to create nine Soviet puppets in an "Eastern bloc." "Court historians" in the academic community rationalized the repeated acceptance of Stalin's demands.

    We return to the main concern, "What caused the Jagellonian republic to fail?". Similar forces of rampant aristocracy in corporate dress are now undermining the American republic. Essentially the fortunes of Poland started to spiral downward towards dismemberment when the dissolute and cunning Elector of Saxony bought the Polish throne (1697) and began a "Great Northern War" against Sweden. It lasted 21 years and gradually led to a civil war ending in an intervention by the "three black eagles" and the Polish partition of 1772. That led to another civil war and fighting against Russia by a Confederation of the Bar, including the family of Pulaski, against the Russians. Essentially Poland was torn apart when its robber baron families sided with nearby countries against the Polish republic. In modern times, similar corporatists in America seldom use formal aristocratic titles, but we suggest that their imperial system traveled to the United States by the time of the Gilded Age

   Legal roots of Hanoverian colonialism were replanted with removal of the original 13th Amendment (1810-1819) from the U.S. Constitution. By 1886, it involved buying a few dozen loyal robber barons, politicians, and brainwashing the military. For example, contrast a motto like "Duty, Honor, Country" to the Polish motto of "God, Honor, Country" and consider the imperial morality of placing duty before honor. The effort to control parts of the United States was explained by Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) as a “cherished” solution for the United Kingdom's problem. He dedicated himself to a "bread and butter issue" of empire. :
           …extending British rule throughout the world … the ultimate recovery of the United States of America 
          as an integral part of the British Empire …and finally, the foundation of so great a power as to hereafter
          render wars impossible and so promote the best interests of humanity.  [Cecil Rhodes, First Will]

    Naturally, as long as its colonies remain docile, imperial leaders will talk of peace and humanity but then we have Rhodes's record in South Africa. He consolidated the diamond mines around Kimberly into the De Beers Corporation. Using a strategy of “home-rule” he helped impose imperial Hanoverian control over South African republics into Rhodesia (1896-98) after a Boer War. The British Commonwealth today still lacks a written Constitution. It consists mainly of a dozen countries with twice as much land as the U.S. - so it doesn't need new territory - but, with half our population it still requires armies and corporate servants (ours!). Such assertions oversimplify a historically convoluted process, but following the money is clear enough. We hope that the main point is now obvious: there are those who despise liberty, equality, and humanity. The history of Poland illustrates several class wars wherein democracy lost to aristocracy, which later lost to other aristocracies. 

     The Commonwealth countries may raise a dozen flags but if they reject the republican rule by written Constitutions (not the kind that can change monthly), hollow words will not protect them. Political or religious praise (Gott mit UnsGod Save the Queen) is no substitute for liberty. Some "living Constitutions" can have aspects of democracy, like universal health care or voting, but these can quickly reverse and ultimately aristocracy logically will not coexist with a republican Constitution. 

    Those who tolerate powerful corporations, condone war crimes, and allow subversion of the United Nations, will help keep the robber barons in power. The giant corporations of today have many of the characteristics of feudal plantations and something like Kosciuszko's Declaration of Liberty, Integrity, and Independence might still is needed by much of the world. However, getting beyond Poland to remember the Cold War: the western Allies clearly failed in promoting "Four Freedoms." The lack of self-determination in central Europe was just one symptom but at least it points the way to a cure.
The Biggest Lie of World War 2 
(The chart is from an errata page for Book 36. Table 2 in Chapter 10.)
     This table in our book on the Balkans (#36) was about exposing a lie of genocide in the Second World War, which is really a double lie. The obvious one has to do with twisting the meaning of the term "Holocaust." It originally meant: 
        "A burnt sacrifice or offering the whole of which was consumed by fire..." 
                                                                                    (Webster's Columbia Concise Dictionary of the English Language, 1939).
    As applied in the Jewish context, a word like Shoah would have been more accurate. Certainly it is poorly connected to killing entire populations by genocide, a word not invented in 1939. It did, however, have a counterpart in extermination as found in ancient narratives and in the lexicon of more recent colonial policies of European empires. In 1944, a Polish lawyer described Nazi policies of systematic murder as genocide and he applied it to the destruction of European Jewry. When an International Tribunal at Nuremberg charged top Nazis with "crimes against humanity" they also used this word in the indictment even though it was not yet accepted as an accurate legal term. It replaced a description of the unspecific Final Solution (Endlösung), which served as the Nazi's euphemistic translation. 

   The United Nations finally did approve a legal criminal definition of Genocide in 1948 (9 Dec.). Their convention established it as an international crime, which signatory nations undertook "to prevent and punish.” It was defined in terms of specific acts intended to destroy "a national, ethnical, racial or religious group." Was such deconstruction of the term associated with nuclear national destruction implied by the undeclared Cold War? Defining the “Holocaust” to exclude Slavic deaths was itself a form of racism. That is another part of the lie that should concern us. We may recall that World War 2 started with invasion of Poland in September 1939 by the Third Reich (Germany & Austria), which brought the global empires of Britain and France into the war (a Soviet invasion soon followed). Hitler's stated war aims to generals at Obersalzburg on August 22, 1939 were: 
          What weak western European civilization thinks about me does not matter... thus I have now sent to the
      East my Death’s Head units with the order to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of 
     the Polish race and language. Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need. Who still talks
     nowadays of the Armenians? 
                                                        A  similar translation can be found in Holocaust Museum in Washington DC, 3rd Floor.

    Although some racial murder began in 1933 and Jewish "extermination" was threatened by Hitler after January 1939, before 1939 the Nazis had killed more Germans than Jews in their domestic class war and Euthanasia programs. Despite over a million murders in 1941, a racial "war" against the Jews was not formally shaped until the Wannsee Conference of January 1942 and mainly took place in central Europe after 1941.  The number of Slavic victims killed in 1941 was far greater, especially by the starvation of Soviet war prisoners. It is true that murders against the Jews were legally defined in terms of a "war" that extended to helpless women and children, who were normally excluded by civilized war treaties, such as the Geneva Convention. Besides hunger, the Nazis did not hesitate to burn Slavic villages with their residents, as illustrated in films such as Come and See. The lie associated with such killing is that the informal murder policy against Slavic groups throughout central and eastern Europe had substantially different intent. We are apparently supposed to ignore most of the other racial killing because it took place outside of concentration camps. Therefore, in terms of the broader definition, here is our list of who was included in the scope of such killing:  

Table X.2. Dimensions of Holocaust (see final note)

                                            Jewish Victims (% of prewar population) †                 Slavic Victims
West Europe:
Germany (with Austria)                             215,000 (44%)                                                           650,000
      Refugees                            145,000 (incl.)                                                              50,000
Denmark & Norway                                 na
Belgium & Luxembourg                                30,000 (66%)
Holland                                     136,000 (60%)
Vichy France                              80,000 (42%)
      Spain (living in France)                                  20,000 (include.)
Italy (with Rhodes)                               10,000 (9%)                                                                              .
                                       636,000                                                             700,000

Central Europe:
 Greece &                                50,000 (87%)                                                                    20,000
      Thrace & Macedonia                          10,000 (included)
Bulgaria                                     5,000 (10%)                                                              4,000
Yugoslavia (incl. Serbia)                             50,000 (81%)                                                          850,000
      Croatia, Albania, Bosnia                      30,000 (incl.)                                                           550,000
Czechoslovakia (ex. Sudetenland)              60,000 (67%)                                                            80,000
      Bohemia & Moravia                      75,000 (include.)
      Slovakia                               85,000 (incl.)                                                                    (1945?)
Romania by Romanian/Germans               124,000 (39% )                                                            5,000
by German/Hungarians                       90,000 (incl.)  
Hungary                                   145,000 (45%)                                                              5,000
      by Hungarians                              65,000 (include.)
Poland (1937 borders)                      2,000,000 (91%)                                                      1,250,000
      Byelorussia                              1,000,000 (incl.)                                                       1,400,000
      National Uprising, 9 weeks in 1944                                                                                                     350,000
Latvia and Estonia                               80,000 (80%)                                                           15,000
Lithuania                                   135,000 (87%)                                                            25,000
                                     4,064,000                                                           4,454,000  
East Europe:
Ukraine (civilians)                                500,000                                                               1,000,000
    Soldiers (POW’s)                              20,000                                                           900,000
    Soldier/Partisans (Combat)                      100,000                                                        1,100,000
    Famine & Disease                            20,000                                                         1,000,000
Soviet Union (1938 borders):   
    Civilians (Bombs & Shooting)                          500,000                                                        1,500,000
    Famine & Disease                            90,000                                                        3,400,000
    Leningrad siege                                10,000                                                           900,000
    Soldiers (POW’s)                              60,000                                                        2,700,000
    Soldier/Partisans (Combat)                      100,000                                                        6,500,000
                                              1,400,000 (46%)                                             19,000,000 

TOTALS (Excluding U.S. victims)†         6,100,000                                      +             24,154,000
The above is a variant of a table in Russo-German War: Balkans, November 1940 - November 1944. ©1990, 2004, 2006 (Our 1990 estimate was increased in the new edition).

Figures for Jewish deaths are calculated by scholars such as  Dawidowicz, Gutman & Rozett, Hilberg, de Lange, and averaged against April 1946 estimates of the Anglo-American Commission (AAC). This table excludes non-Slavic nationalities that died on the Soviet side. Of the Soviet ethnic groups, about a million were also recruited as German Army mercenaries. Among them were some Ukrainians, Byelorussians, and Great Russians who served as support troops (Hiwis), and combatants (Kawis). Many even served in SS Police units, especially after June 1944 when several divisions were put into SS uniform and tatooed to discourage desertions. Some Polish and Lithuanian police units existed but they were small and never trusted by the Germans. Such exceptions were only allowed for Jews if they served as police capos in concentration camps or work details, but they would never be armed. 

  Three more notes on the above table:
The percentages are based on pre-war frontiers (usually 1937) or 1930 population estimates of nationalities. The number is inconsistent for Jewish and Slavic populations for several reasons:
          1. There were vast territorial changes between 1937 and May 1945. For example, the Jewish population of the Soviet Union was
              3,020,100 in 1939, but with the incorporation of East Poland in October 1939, it rose above five million by June 1941 when the Axis
              invaded. Jewish refugees who escaped Germany, Austria, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, were often killed later in the war. Therefore 
              they might be listed in both countries. Also some individuals survived the war by hiding their identity and several governments 
              removed Jews to protect them as in Denmark and Norway (evacuated Jewish refugees to Sweden). Due to such variation, the 
              original AAC total of 6,029,500 was adjusted down by 308,000 due to double counted or otherwise displaced persons.

          2. The German classification of Jews was arbitrary and often unrelated to religion; for example, if SS squads captured a large number
               of "suspects" after frontline combat, many were promptly shot or, not long after, as "hostages," in claimed reprisal for losses. 
               Murdered Slavic partisans, captured “commissars,” or Gypsies, were often submitted as one total. Most estimates failed to include
               estimated losses from combat environments where Jewish/Slavic civilians died in often hopeless circumstances along with other
               combatants under the smoke of anti-partisan raids. There was also a decided change in racial policy after the Germans realized 
               that they were losing the war in late 1942, when the outcome of the Stalingrad campaign was clear. Nazi Propaganda redefined those 
               who it called "subhuman" to facilitate recruitment of slave labor. Distinctions were still often arbitrary.

         3. Slavic figures were compiled by Madeja (editor) from almanacs or texts such as R. J. Rummel’s Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass
             Murder (1992) that details the killing by causes besides racial murder. Combining deaths from battle and famine, which Rundstedt's
             quote (above) shows as a way to remove potential enemies, establishes these numbers. The total includes military casualties, such as 
             those in partisan warfare where murder was done to the sound of bugles against ill-prepared civilian-soldiers but there was difficulty
             in attributing causes, as in the Leningrad battle (estimates there are beyond two million with at least 640,000 civilians). In nine weeks
              (Aug.-Sept. 1944) about 350,000 Poles died, some 250,000 in Warsaw alone, during an uprising that was betrayed by the Allies.  In 
              the Reich, forced laborers were worked to death, mainly near nine large concentration camps, or simply executed for minor trans-
              gressions. We include slave labor deaths (over 650,000). Even if attributed to “illness” or Allied bombing, they cannot really be 
             separated from the racism that forced the victims into Germany. Added Soviet material by G.E. Krivocheev is unclear because of the
             category "Irrecoverable losses" that mixes deaths in action & wounds during casualty evacuation with those taken prisoner or 
             otherwise missing in action. The number of deaths in hospitals from wounds are mixed with deaths due to disease (appear only as 
             part of total armed forces casualties). This helps obscure what Zhukov called a "criminally negligent" waste of lives, which we 
             estimate disproportionately fell on the Poles and Ukrainians in Stalin's apparent "use them or lose them" policy.  BUT, aside from
             the military losses we have civilian deaths in excess of fifteen million.

A Final Comment
        Alan Bullock has similar totals in Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (1991), but without attribution to genocide. Because of obvious motivations, our total does include civilian and military casualties because racial killing was a routine part of Nazi military policy from the very start.  Here is what one of Hitler's top commanders said about it:
          “One of the great mistakes of 1918 was to spare the civil life of the enemy countries, for it is necessary for 
       us Germans to be always at least double the numbers of the people of the border countries. We are therefore
      obliged to destroy at least a third of their inhabitants. The only means is organized underfeeding, which in 
      the present case is better than machine guns.”
                                                          Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) address to Reich War Academy, Berlin 1943

       In terms of prewar population, we feel that it is also important to note that Germany lost about 9% of its people while Poland lost 17%, Yugoslavia 11%, and the Soviet Union over 10%. Jewish losses in Europe, based on the prewar populations, were about 75%. We chose not to quibble that military deaths are not a form of racial killing when one side has no chance of equal resistance. However, for those who wish to split hairs, even if we assume that our totals for Slavic genocide are off by 100% -- i.e., 12.1 million rather than 24.2 million --  it would still make anyone claiming that it was 6 million to be a double denier of an intentional genocide policy during World War 2.  

So why would western historians have denied the truth? We try to explain below.   

What does the big lie of World War 2 mean to us?
   In our opinion, lies about the definition of the Holocaust appear to be motivated by the nuclear policy of the United States. As shown, it is clearly more descriptive of burning cities than gassing innocent prisoners. Both of the major western allies engaged in the burning of cities and the U.S. was especially brutal in this application against Japanese civilians.  What did those who promoted the use of this terminology in the West have to hide? For one thing, there had been significant sympathy for both Mussolini and Hitler before World War 2 by American elites. Even after Germany and Italy had declared war on the U.S., fascism was usually defined as totalitarianism, and not colonialism or corporatism. See the Capra Why We Fight series to note this ambiguity. Consider again the statement proclaimed by the person who would replace Roosevelt’s renominated vice-president (Wallace). Truman led the United States into militarism, as already noted: 
           "If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia, and if we see Russia is winning we ought to help 
      the Germans, and that way let them kill as many as possible, ..." Senator Harry S. Truman, Senate Speech of 5 July 1941

The simple truth is that he did help Germany after 1945, which included enlisting many former Nazis. Besides political diversion, the sinister aspect of using a false definition of genocide is that some people came to believe that the Nazis were evil because they murdered Jews. In converse words, the lie is that the Nazis would not have been evil if they had not murdered Jews. In our view, this ethnic killing was one of many symptoms of a criminality that started by destroying the Constitution of the Weimar republic. It is also evident in the undermining of the United States Constitution as suggested by Truman's 5 July 1941 quote. 

   In the motion picture Murderers Among Us (by Gibson, 1989), Mr. Simon Wiesenthal points out how Nazi values prevailed after World War 2. The mass civilian bombing that led to United States nuclear policy also encompasses true genocide. One of the motivations for coddling former Nazis was in securing their cooperation against the Soviet Union. With them, we inherited the “better dead than red” philosophy, a false definition of Eastern Europe, and pervasive contempt for International Law. There were specific beneficaries of this policy. In Rauschning’s The Voice of Destruction: Hitler Speaks, Hitler proclaimed a new order:
      ...with a social structure based on a battle-tested master (Herren) class, a great hierarchy of party
      members (politicians, diplomats, media, teachers, writers, actors, etc.) as a new middle class, an
     eternally disenfranchised anonymous serving collective of about 80%, to be based on …the modern
     slave class [of subject alien races]. And over all these will stand a new high aristocracy….

    Sound familiar? Can we assert that Truman initiated and Eisenhower helped solidify such a global social alignment? Did both of them betray the Constitution? It was not much of a secret. In his 5 July 1941 statement (above), when he was still senator, Truman had announced his intent to help the Germans. After some show trials in 1945, Truman even decided to enlist former Nazis and their Axis allied leaders in other countries. He fired Morgenthau, who was Roosevelt's man for punishing Germany. This collaboration had begun even before Germany surrendered, as in keeping Nazi officials in power when Anglo-Americans liberated German cities in 1944 and Operation Dick Tracy (to target Soviet cities) in April 1945. Secret files -- a few of them still classified -- show the extent to which Nazi war criminals (like General Reinhard Gehlen and Klaus Barbie) joined American ranks. This broad topic has to with Hanoverian hegemony, corporate profits, and immigration for reasons of cheap labor and militarism. 

    There was little effort to understand fascism as a form of authoritarinism or corporatism; not even in the seven part Why We Fight series by Frank Capra. Neither Allied civilian bombing nor Italian fascism faced postwar tribunals. Many war criminals slid comfortably into the Anglo-American corporate state. When the denazification in Germany and Austria was revealed as a farce, especially in British zones, Churchill openly reversed promises to punish war crimes. He proclaimed a new policy in Parliament: 
         Our policy …should henceforth be to draw the sponge across the crimes and horrors of the past—hard as 
      that may be—and look for the sake of all our salvation, towards the future. There can be no revival of Europe
      without the active and loyal aid of all the German tribes...
Churchill Speech to Parliament, October 1948

    If the racist motivation is in question, the Missouri “iron curtain” speech (5 March 1946) by this apologist of German tribes also proposed an alliance of “English-speaking peoples.” It was linked to decisions that defended Hanoverian colonial interests. America would also back French colonialism in Indochina to get help with NATO. Such policy again contradicted part of the “Four Freedoms” charter for which America had announced its early support for the war (14 August 1941) and embraced racial values that existed in the our deep south. The racial and bombing "Holocausts" were never properly punished and carried into the Cold War. The policy motivations against "tribes" of non-English speakers was influenced by skin color in the case of African colonies and Vietnam. World War 2 had started with the violation of Poland, which also became a "non-English speaking" victim of this policy.15 

      In the Nazi example, racism can be confirmed as a "tactic" when compared to a "strategy" of greed to secure power. (Hitler’s Beneficiaries by Götz Aly offers some good analysis of this; also see his Architects of Annihilation). We therefore return to the issue of corporate greed. The launch of several "false flag" operations in the Nazi tradition became part of US Cold War strategy. This came to include a national policy of threatening nuclear war. It starts with the sort of extortion achieved by pointing a gun at someone. How is the planning of nuclear destruction of nations not premeditating genocide? It is worse than racism. Here we begin to uncover the real "Big lie" that has been so carefully hidden since World War 2. Was Truman a mass murderer? When he deliberately approved the bombing of Hiroshima and condoned Nagasaki, he was acting as the National leader, not a surrogate like Bomber Harris or Curtis LeMay. As a nation, America had never before engaged in such a scale of lawless brutality. 

    The people would be blamed for accepting his war crimes even though they had never approved them! Truman tried to divert outrage on such issues by "The bucks stops here" attitude, common to authoritarians without a conscience (he admitted he lost no sleep over the bombing decision). The military-industrial complex lined up behind him brainwashing stories of how happy our troops were because they would not have to invade Japan (as if it were the only option). It was the tip of a domestic propaganda campaign that continues since the World War. involves teachers and preachers with all levels of media support. In 1947, Truman created an unconstitutional Air Force, CIA, and Nazi-styled general staff`to better manage future mass murder. He then took the`nation to a war in Korea without bothering to get a formal declaration. Repeatedly, the Congress failed to stop him. 

     Eisenhower helped entrench the crooks and liars. His perception of a military-industrial threat in 1961 and its "warning" was probably an effort to recoup lost honor. He failed to include "Congressional" (the missing "C") that was drafted in the original speech, so the politicians could deflect the blame. He also failed to see the dangers of a global nuclear winter, so the economic policy was based on one-way killing. That is still how most politicians tend to defend nuclear war. In 1964, the U.S. had about 33,000 atomic warheads of various shapes and sizes. A single Trident II submarine has enough destructive power to destroy any nation in the world and claim that this part of a national defense policy. Since this policy involves the destruction of entire nations, we thus return to an operational definition of genocide. 

    Politicians will dodge questions on the military industrial complex. If you try asking it in public (as Gravel did in the 2008 presidential debates), a Clinton "cackle" is one of the common reactions. Meanwhile they rob our children by increasing the national debt to pay for military weapons.  In 1961 Eisenhower warned that such militarism costs more than the profits of all U.S. corporations. Now America spends more on the military than the rest of the world combined and selected international corporations share in the profit through Wall Street plunder. It requires a great deal of mendacity to impose this policy but this section is not about specific big lie techniques, which are tactics of a strategy to impose control. For example, merely ending the Iraq occupation will do no more than did ending of the war in Vietnam. 

    If the criminals remain in power the crimes will continue. Therefore, any solution requires removing them from power. Their heritage is with Truman's self-confessed mass murder against Japan in 1945 (The buck stops here.), which was ignored by Congress. As an analogy, imagine if your car had killed someone in a rush for a hospital emergency. Would you avoid jail? Truman did not even stand trial. Teachers have been lying that murdering innocents is normal in war.  Preachers have sold this royal definition of morality in terms of Mosaic Law. Since the time they introduced a tradition of undeclared war in Korea (1950), most members of Congress could qualify as war criminals. 

     The idea that a president has the power to force the nation to war is a blatant violation of the Ninth Amendment and an idea that was particularly repugnant to the founders of this country. Moreover, when politicians saw that they could "get away with murder," it changed the political landscape. They introduced British-styled pensions with "double-dipping" options for loyalty in the police and military. The "revolving-door" was added to serve their particularly meritorious running dogs.  To oppose this, patriotic citizens need to renew a sense of duty.

    If you care about the "biggest lie," then you should treat the corrupt politicians as criminals. At the least, this means filing criminal complaints; elsewhere we discuss how to do this. Returning to the table above: our purpose was to show what U.S. historians call "the Holocaust" is not even a half-truth. In terms of numbers, it is more like a quarter truth. Even if the number of Slavic deaths in the chart is off by 12 million, that number would still be double of what is claimed by official “deniers.” The falsification of the Holocaust demonstrated here shows that corporate stories have stolen the part of our heritage in which our grandparents fought Nazism and fascism. What else have the corporatists taken? Study more on your own. A leading intellectual, Dr.  Noam Chomsky,* noted a major concern about such lies:
  It is a poor service to the memory of the victims of the Holocaust to adopt the central doctrine of their murderers. 
                                             (A more articulate discussion of "necessary illusions" is in his talks on YouTube. Simply search by Dr. Chomsky's name.)

We can recognize Nazism by its mottoes and these four are from two of its concentration camps. The two on the left were at Dachau. The other two were at Buchenwald, which was liberated by U.S. forces on April 11, 1945.  Like Dachau, it was a holding camp not designed for mass murder. Of some 250,000 mostly non-Jewish prisoners who were held there (political prisoners, "asocials", Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, ex-convicts Soviet war prisoners, Sinti & Roma) from its opening in mid-1937 to liberation, an estimated 56,000 people were killed. The wrought-iron gate to the camp says "Jedem das Seine" (To each his own) and above the entrance way the sign was "Recht oder Unrecht – mein Vaterland” (roughly: "My country right or wrong"). Does it sound like American authoritarians?

Do you have the moral courage to deal with such authoritarians? Call them "conservatives without a conscience," as John Dean does, or American fascists as Chris Hedges does. The question is: what would you have done if you lived in 1933 Germany as the Nazis trashed the Weimar Constitution? Will you continue to condone the torture, murder, and much worse, by corporate-hired political leaders? The evidence indicates that private interests have been able to virtually purchase Government officials to covertly engage in brutal activities for power and political advantage. 

Plant justice to overgrow the Corpfederacy!  

(Videos below)

    In short, we allow a few thousand people to dominate the economy, politics, and culture. Despite a written Constitution, most are kept out of decision-making by right and ultra-right wings of a corporate vampire party. The authoritarian "old boys," prefer to be called "responsible men," who "care for affairs of the world" and benevolently guide its "bewildered herd." They see humanity as a rabble incapable of wotking political complexity. This idea was developed by propagandists like Freud's nephew (Bernays, 1891-1995) and Lippman (1889-1974) in the service of tycoons such as Andrew Carnegie, Henry Ford, J.P. Morgan and J.D. Rockefeller Sr. The polyarchy bribed key business and government officers towards sedition (misdirection from national security) and ignored threats to genuine Allies (as in WW2 poster). This freign based aristocracy now thoroughly infiltrates the republic. The oligarchs won't willingly weaken their power, so we now face corporate controlled world government, often dominated by foreign leaders. It now seems reasonable to ask: who really won World War Two?...

                    When the dying flame of day  /  through the chancel shot its ray, 
                    Far the glimmering tapers shed  /  faint light on the cowled head; 
                    And the censer burning swung  /  where, before the altar, hung
                    the crimson banner, that with prayer   had been consecrated there.

And the nuns' sweet hymn was heard the while/  sung low, in the dim mysterious aisle:

 "Take thy banner! May it wave  /  proudly o’er the good and brave;
    When the battle’s distant wail  /  breaks the Sabbath of our vale.
     When the clarion’s music thrills  /  to the hearts of these lone hills,
      When the spear in conflict shakes,  /  and the strong lance shivering breaks.

      'Take thy banner! And, beneath  /  the battle-cloud’s encircling wreath,
        Guard it, till our homes are free!  /  Guard it! God will prosper thee! 
         In the dark and trying hour,  /  in the breaking forth of power,
          In the rush of steeds and men,  /  his right hand will shield thee then.

          'Take thy banner! But when night  /  closes round the ghastly fight, 
            If the vanquished warrior bow,  /  Spare him! By our holy vow,        
            By our prayers and many tears,  /  by the mercy that endears, 
             Spare him! He our love hath shared!  /  Spare him! as thou would’st be spared!

              'Take thy banner! and if it e’er / thou should’st press the soldier’s bier, 
                And the muffled drum should beat / to the tread of mournful feet, 
                 Then this crimson flag shall be /martial cloak and shroud for thee.”

                  And the warrior took that banner proud, / and it was his martial cloak and shroud!

                                                                                    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow* (27 Feb. 1807- 24 March 1882)

* Published while a senior at Bowdoin College in the United States Literary Gazette (1825) and selected by him for inclusion in Voices of the Night (1839), his
 first volume of poetry. Also, in 1855, Margaret Lindsay of Australia adapted the words to a duet for soprano and contralto. Contrary to the poetic imagery, the
 Moravian single-sisters were not a Catholic monastic community, but a secular residence to which the General had extended his protection. Format is altered here.
     (This page mentions a few of the bigger lies...) 

The media oligarchs and schools even falsified maps. As discussed in the htm portion, unlike the "official" National Geographic map insert of 1977 (east edge near Moscow), the corrected map (1982), as above, shows a center of Europe from Helsinki down to Crete. Most of the nine countries taken by Stalin in the summer of 1944 were never in "east" Europe. We were lied into Goebbel's definition by Churchill.

A simple truth is that World War 2 started with the invasion of Poland in September 1939 by Germany and its Soviet ally. Britain and France promised to help and later joined the United States in an Atlantic CharterContrary to its promise of "Four Freedoms," after Hitler declared war on us, America became Stalin's ally and allowed enslavement of Moldavia, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and much of central Europe. Poland was dismembered. The documentary, WW2: Behind Closed Doorsexplains some of the betrayal. 

Poland, our old ally (38 million people), got less help than little Israel or tiny Ireland, even though so many Americans are of Slavic descent (Poland was off the map from 1815 to 1918 so most of its refugees were falsely listed as being German.) Is that why we joined former Nazis to continue brutish British policies, like bombing civilians? Since 1947, our so-called leaders even made plans for nuclear genocide

 (What else do robber barons lie about?)
 Is it a coincidence that our schools don't question historic lies? Their loss of corporate credibility goes back to a market crash in 1929 and appeasements of Hitler (1935), Stalin (1944), and global oligarchs (after 1950). Doesn't the recent market collapse confirm democratic failure? Key question: If America was founded free from foreign entanglements, who later wanted them? Did the Allies die to preserve corporatism and have our children put at risk of nuclear destruction or genocide? A list below shows what the Holocaust really was.  
Who misled us on this? Have we forgotten the former tyrants who enforced brutish charters, as in 1775 America, also claimed to rule by "divine right"? Why don't children learn what levels of representation American founders associated with democracy? For example, what was the ratio between citizens to hired representatives until 1825? What social contract was then common knowledge? When was it broken? How about the true 13th Amendment, 1810-1819? What else have we forgotten? The newsletter.htm (upper left) further recalls how the current failed capitalism connects to corporatism, royalism and fascism.  

The following illustration of American values from the Lehigh Valley might also be helpful.
  In August 1780 Kosciuszko was ordered south to be chief engineer in Gate's shattered Army, reforming under General Greene. He met Jefferson (Sept. 1780). A rebuilt corps undertook the defense of Virginia and North Carolina, while disrupting British control of South Carolina and Georgia. There were significant battles at Guilford Courthouse, Hobkirk's Hill, Ninety Six, and Eutaw Springs (war's bloodiest battle). After the British surrender at Yorktown, he played a brilliant role in battles to help Greene reduce all the British forts and contain Charleston and Wilmington, often by adapting Pulaski's dragoon & horse artillery tactics for cavalry while leading reconnaissance patrols. From 1779, U.S. engineers were under French general Louis Duportail, who also directed the Washington's seige of Yorktown. However, Kosciuszko's actions at Saratoga, West Point and the South, amply qualify to make him, a more likely "Father of American Army Engineers", at least unofficially.
General Thaddeus Kosciuszko
(4 February 1746- 15 October 1817)
   Father of American Army Artillery
General Kazimierz Pułaski 
(4 March 1746-11 October 1779)
  Father of American Cavalry 
  Colonel Kosciuszko had similar sentiments and for the turning point of September 1777, he had engineered positions at Bemis Heights to stop Burgoyne near Saratoga (see map at right). That's why General Gates gave him more credit than to an insubordinate Benedict Arnold, who had led a reckless and useless attack. Some history books still call it Battle of Bemis Heights. He was then sent 130 miles south to fortify West Point, which he did over 2 years from near scratch. Arnold took command and tried to betray it to Britain (Sept. 1780). 
      His actions included manuevers that led to isolating Cornwallis within Yorktown. Compared to competing achievements at Bunker Hill or at Yorktown. the brilliant river crossings and selection of defensive battle positions for Gates, Greene and Morgan had a decisive influence on the war. Even one error could have lost the campaign and army. His lesson of entrenchments, as at Saratoga, was not fully relearned until 1862. After the war, he repeatedly lobbied Jefferson to create a federal military school. The Corps of Engineers was reestablished in 1802 within the Military Academy at West Point. All its Superintendents until 1866 were engineer officers. Although Sylvanus Thayer is named "Father of the United States Military Academy" (by General George Cullum, June 1883), a graduate more likely qualifies as its "first son." In fact, Jefferson was the "father of the Military Academy" and Kosciuszko built its foundation. His statue there (at right) was rededicated in 2002.
Statue to Pulaski in Washington DC at far right. With an engraving at left and other another next to it.

On the right below is a Kosciuszko Monument in Boston Public Gardens erected in 1927, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the enlistment of Kosciuszko into the Continental Army, the statue is the work of Theo Ruggles Kitson (1876 -1932), one of the most prolific female bronze sculptors in America who also designed the world renowned statue of the Minuteman at the Lexington Battle Green. The sculpture portrays him holding plans for a future West Point. The 22-ft Kosciuszko Monument at the entrance to the Wawel Castle in Krakow is shown in two views as designed by Leonard Marconi and Antoni Popiel, and erected in 1920. The Germans destroyed in 1940 and the replica was contributed by Dresden (Germany) and erected in 1960. A copy was given by the people of Krakow to the city of Detroit, which donated a 15-ton granite base through Detroit's Polish Century Club, and the 10-ton statue arrived in 1978. In Chicago there is Kosciuszko Monument on Solidarity Drive with a vista of Lake Michigan and the city skyline. In Poznan, a statue was unveiled in late 1930 by Zofia Trzecinsko-Kaminska and after being destroyed by the Germans in WW2 was reconstructed under the artist's direction in 1967 (lr). 

The statue below is at Lafayette Park in Washington DC.
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Thank you for reading this far. 

According to John Dean (Nixon's nemesis) about 25% of U.S. politics is dominated by "conservatives without conscience." Some remnants of a Constitution are kept in place to assure docile complicty. We believe a solution can be found by restoring the Constitution [RtC] and informed representation as defined by George Washington and the founders in the original 1st Amendment (1789) and the true 13th Amendment (1810). The false one, which legitimized slavery (1864), needs to conform. Political parties may be needed but we believe that any aristocracy that places party or corporate loyalty above the Constitution, must go.

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As an American general and honorary citizen, he returned to Poland to help defend the world’s second written Constitution of 3 May 1791 (even before France). The painting on the left depicts a pivotal event wherein Poland's king adopts key political and educational reforms to build solidarity against foreign invasions. Unlike former "charters," like Magna Carta, that were decrees to appease aristocracy, the new constitution directly appealed to the people. In outrage, Prussia's king abandoned a march on Paris and headed east to punish Poland. King Poniatowski lost courage and changed sides. Kosciuszko and other officers resigned. Meanwhile, the French King also abandoned his people. Like Polish leaders, Lafayette, commanding border troops, had renounced his royal title and sworn allegiance to "the nation" was suspected of disloyalty and captured by Austria (held until 1798).
Video files are referenced by a blue numbers  (1-15) at bottom of page.
5 La Marseillaise                                                                       6. Poland is not lost while we still live!
Pictorial Glimpse with Polish Anthem (Music and Sung)         1. Warsaw Uprising (Polish: Flowers Gone & Warsaw Children) 
2 (a-c). The Battle of Grunwald (aka Tannenberg) 
3. Polish--Lithuanian Commonwealth by Norman Davies                3b Norman Davies Comments on Modern Europe (Oct. 2008)

 4 (a&b). The Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683 and c Winged Hussar in With Fire and Sword movie
7. The Poles and Napoleon                                                          8. Battle of Samosierra in "Popioły" (Ashes) 
9.(a) Polish History 966 to 1939 (10m Overview)                             9.(b) Polish History 1940-2010 (6m Overview)                           
10 Chopin's Revolutionary Etude in C minor, Op. 10 No. 12      11. The Oath of 1908 (Rota)                                       

 12. Miracle on the Vistula                                                            13 Lies about "Polish" Concentration Camps (Part 1 of 5)                         
14. The Polish Motto (God, Honor, Homeland)                                15. Russian-Jewish Revolt at Sobibor / Dramatization cumentary
...was America an Arsenal of Democracy? 
Why Care About Polish Connections to America?
West Point fortification &
16. 40 to 1 (Battle of Vizna, Sept. 1939) by Sabaton                      17. Carving up Poland in World War 2 (Part 1 of 4)
  "If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia, and if we see Russia is winning we ought to help Germany, and that way let them kill as many as possible, ..."
P o l a n d
 First, let's confess the lies. German defeat in World War 2 could have been obvious before America entered it on 11 December 1941. Two strategic Nazi offensives (Code-named Barbarossa & Typhoon) had failed. Instead, the policy expressed by Truman in July 1941 was adopted. After 1942, American priority to the Pacific Theater undermined a "Europe first" policy, which led to the moral failures in 1943. The benefits of an added year of war in Lend-lease flowed into the corporate treasuries but at a horrible cost to both Jewish and Slavic Europeans. Stalin reacted by punishing the democracies, which then joined with western Germany (in 1945) to oppose him. That meant the start of a Cold War, which was also profitable for the arms merchants. It involved cooperating with former Nazis.

   That angered most Slavic people, even the ones who hated Stalin - pushing anti-Communists into the Soviet camp. So, in simplest terms, global aristocracy used corporatism to enrich itself. Our claim is that "conservatives without a conscience" hate equality and will stoop to kill innocent people to preserve power. Overthrowing their oligarchy requires some memory of historical lessons and, to recover the stolen assets, we must first disarm the bodyguard of lies. The lies about Poland are not a bad place to start and more follows below. 
 In World War II the program of Lend Lease was highly profitable for certain American corporations and each added month of the war brought them added profit (a $ amount can be calculated after inflation using gold values). As shown above, the evidence indicates that the war was prolonged by policies such as “unconditional surrender” and related failures to exploit Axis collapse. Prolonging the war had a high  human cost and we suggest that this was deliberately concealed by focusing on only the Jewish Holocaust, rather than the far greater costs against the Slavic people. Similar arguments could be made using the Chinese example. The typical fabrication used to counter this evidence, as in Truman’s policy statement, suggests that the communist brutality was worse. 

Therefore, efforts to weaken it were somehow considered to be justified. The initiation of the Cold War, and development of what Garry Wills has analyzed as “Bomb Power” in his similarly titled book, can be taken to include McCarthyism, which fabricated evidence of communist infiltration. This fabrication changed a containment policy into one of military conflict, as in an undeclared war in Korea and the Tonkin Gulf false flag that got us in Vietnam. Efforts to discredit opponents (such as Daniel Ellsberg) and preserve power (as in the Watergate break-in, October Surprise, Iran-Contra, and stolen 2000 Florida Election) continued. When communism failed, “terrorism” was invoked to maintain military profits. Some proof of a 9-11 fraud is conclusive in that regard.

Reasons for collapse of World Trade Center Building 7 remain unclear and convincing academic research in the peer-reviewed Open Chemical Physics Journal (Volume 2, 2009) confirm discovery of red/gray chips of highly energetic, thermitic material in samples of debris from all three buildings (it's a pyrotechnic composition of a metal powder and metal oxide associated with controlled demolitions). Based on the accusation that the three buildings were destroyed by a controlled demolition, more than 1,000 architects and engineers world-wide supported the call for a renewed investigations into the destruction of Building 7 and Twin Towers (at the WTC complex). Who destroyed the buildings? Was it part of a corporate insurance scam? Should this crime - by whoever did it - have been allowed to serve as pretext for an invasion of the Middle East. 

Such questions are hard for Americans to consider due their psychological conditioning by mass media, which is disciplined to keep “false flag” operations and stolen elections away from effective investigations. The accusation of “conspiracy theory” places it outside of broader public scrutiny. The public mind is also conditioned not to examine information that attacks core beliefs, as reinforced by constant repetition from a mostly corporate noise machine. Its psychological advantage is so strong that even when fraud is confirmed, as with 2000 Florida selection (see the refusal of the Senate to investigate in Moore’s Fahrenheit 9-11), people are usually not willing to accept that they have been lied to. They will actually search for confirmation of what they already believe that the media happily provides. There is research into “cognitive dissonance” that explains all this and mentioning simply suggests the need for a larger dialog (see the Grassroots Rising page).  Bottom line: we should be aware that leaders lied and people died. Change is unlikely until the psychopaths are removed from power.

Valor Notes on the amazing true story of WW2...
                                     ...for your freedom and ours.
I'll sure pass it on.
It's interesting.
We will bury you!